Evaluating Sources and Oral Citations

What Students Need to Know:

When presenting to an audience, it is important that they know you are credible to speak on the topic at hand. This credibility can come from both your personal experiences as well as research you have conducted on the topic. Just like how you would not turn in a research paper without sources, the same is true for speeches. This page includes resources such as the CRAAP test as well as how to include oral citations to help you build a strong speech where your audience knows you are an ethical speaker.

C.R.A.A.P. Test

What is the CRAAP Test?

The CRAAP test helps you to determine if the sources you are evaluating are good or not. CRAAP stands for:

  • Currency
  • Relevance
  • Authority
  • Accuracy
  • Purpose

The following handout further elaborates on the utility of each step of the test: CRAAP Test PDF

Oral Citations:

When citing sources in a speech there are four key components to keep in mind. These components are outlined below:

  • Source’s origin (author, name of journal, etc.)
  • Title of the work
  • Date of publication
  • Type of source (journal article, book, website, interview, video, etc.)

These citations should be integrated within your presentation as well as being fully cited in a reference list.

Information from

O’Hair, D., Stewart, R., Rubenstein, H. (2018). Citing Sources in Your Speech. In O’Hair, D., Stewart, R., Rubenstein, H., A Speaker’s Guidebook (7th ed., VT edition, pp. 137-139). Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Examples in Action:

  • Evaluating Sources Using CRAAP Test
  • If unsure of how to cite information in APA, the following resource explains how to include citations in your outline, orally within your speech, and tips for writing academic papers